Expresión de relaciones lógicas:

  • Conjunción (as wellas).
  • Disyunción (either…or).
  • Oposición/concesión (although; however).
  • Causa (because (of); due to; as).
  • Finalidad (so that; in order to).
  • Comparación (as/not so Adj.as) less/more + Adj./Adv.(than). the better of the two, the best ever.
  • Resultado/correlación (so; so that; the more…the better);
  • Condición (if; unless; in case);
  • Estilo indirecto (reported information, offers, suggestions, promises, commands, wishes).

Relaciones temporales:

  • While; once (we havefinished.


  • Affirmative sentences; tags; So it seems.


  • What + noun (+ phrase), e. g. What a thing to say!.
  • How + Adv. + Adj., e. g. How very funny!.
  • Exclamatory sentences and phrases, e. g. Wow, this is really cool!).

Negación (e. g. Not bad; Not at all; No way).

Interrogación (Whquestions; Aux. Questions; How come?; So?; tags).

Expresión del tiempo:

  • Pasado (past simple and continuous; present perfect simple and continuous; past perfect simple and continuous).
  • Presente (simple and continuous present).
  • Futuro (present simple and continuous + Adv.; will be – ing).

Expresión del aspecto:

  • Puntual (simple tenses);
  • Durativo (present and past simple/perfect; and future continuous).
  • Habitual (simple tenses (+ Adv., e. g. as a rule); used to).
  • Incoativo ((be) set to).
  • Terminativo (cease – ing).

Expresión de la modalidad:

  • Factualidad (declarative sentences);
  • Capacidad (manage);
  • Posibilidad/probabilidad (possibly; probably);
  • Necesidad (want; take);
  • Obligación (need/needn’t);
  • Permiso (may; could; allow);
  • Intención (be thinking of –ing).

Exresión de la existencia:

  • La entidad (count/uncount/collective/com pound nouns; pronouns (relative, reflexive/emphatic, one(s); determiners); 
  • La cualidad (e. g. quite nice; easy to handle).

Expresión de la cantidad:

  • Number (e. g. fractions; decimals).
  • Quantity: e. g. several. Degree: e. g. terribly (sorry); quite well).

Expresión del espacio

  •  Prepositions and adverbs of location, position, distance, motion, direction, origin and arrangement.

Expresión del tiempo

  • Points (e. g. this time tomorrow; in ten days).
  • Divisions (e. g. semester), and indications (e. g. earlier; later).
  • Duration (e. g. all day long; the whole summer).
  • Anteriority (already; (not) yet).
  • Posteriority (e. g. afterwards; later (on).
  • Sequence (firstly, secondly, finally).
  • Simultaneousness (just then/as).
  • Frequency (e. g. quite often; frequently; day in day out).

Expresión del modo

  • Adv. and phrases of manner: e. g. nicely; upside down.